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Maral Kalieva. Social aspects of developing Kazakhstan’s youth policy

Young generation has an important place in the life of Kazakhstani society.  As an independent and actual group of population, youth performs certain social functions.  Youth inherits up-to- date practical experience of developing the society and state, determines the vision of country’s future, and takes responsibility for her stability under the conditions of globalization and market transformations.  Youth is one of the main participators of socio-political processes; it has its own innovative potential, its goals and interests. State youth policy is intended to be one of the system resources for realization of Strategy “Kazakhstan-2050” [1].

The regulatory framework of youth policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan is identified within the context of present-day realities. It includes the following basic documents:

  • On the concept of state youth policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan up to 2020 “Kazakhstan 2020: path for the future”[2];
  • On the approval of the action plan on realization of the concept of  state youth policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan up to 2020 “Kazakhstan 2020: path for the future”  (first phase  – 2013-2015) [3];
  • On the approval of the action plan on realization of the concept of  state youth policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan up to 2020 “Kazakhstan 2020: path for the future” (second phase – 2016-2020 [4];
  • Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan from February 9, 2015, # 285-V «On state youth policy» [5] and others.

Specificity of social status of the youth in contemporary society such as that youth is at the epicenter of almost all social conflicts and contradictions. In searching for social status, youth reveals new social niche in the system of state development.

The creation of new social quality and of social maturity requires from Kazakhstani youth innovative forms of self-realization and self-affirmation. These days, the tendencies of the development of international community are characterized by economic and political crisis, social cataclysm, manifestations of terrorism and religious extremism.

Under the conditions of threat and risk for the world, youth is facing new challenges. Social advancement is one of the basic components to foster the social inclusion of youth. It is important to involve young people to decide problems not only of individual concern, but also issues of country’s development of national concern.

Social aspect of developing Kazakhstan’s youth policy is closely interlinked with social policy of the government.  Its functionality mainly depends from the level and quality of activities of administrative institutions.  In order to enhance their effectiveness and mobility, it is necessary:

  • To identify and to structure goals, tasks, forms and methods of work with all social groups of youth;
  • To form the model of social partnership and interaction between government and youth NGO, which are able to react to changes around on time and forecast the perspective  of their further development;
  • To determine new directions of dynamic control of social sphere of youth policy.

There is a rising social responsibility of an individual in the system of development of Kazakhstani society.  The youth, unrealized in the job market, who also represents the interests of certain socio-demographic group, is one of the main destabilizers of social relationships. Therefore, there is a need for the mechanism of controlling social conflicts, which operates effectively on all levels of state youth policy development.  Such socially significant issues as health, education, employment, vacation and cultural recreational activities of young people are all-important in the system of state social policy.  It is also topical that the current state of solving social problems of youth are reflected in real terms.

Strengthening of democratic norms and relationships requires from the youth comprehensive adaptation and active civic engagement, development of social skills in the area of family-domestic and labor relations in teaching-educational process. As practice shows government has made considerable efforts in its work on youth policy.

However, such factors as inadequate engagement of NGOs in solving youth problems, as well as manifestations of infantilism and passivity in the youth environment in the process of solving their vital issues hampers the social adaptation of youth. Apart from that, underdevelopment of social adaptation mechanisms and upbringing of youth in the spirit of liberal-democratic values limits the opportunities of realizing their work potential, comprehensive exposure of their professional, organizational, and leadership qualities.

Because of that, government’s creation of optimal conditions for the development of youth’s potential resources plays an important role.  In the realities of the present-day, youth has an opportunity to take part in the realization of programs such as:

  • State program of developing and functioning of languages in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2011-2020 [6];
  • Programs of regional development up to 2020[7];
  • Employment Roadmap-2020[8] and others.

In general, all these contribute to the harmonious adaptation of youth into the system of social relationships. For positive social well-being, youth should have an opportunity to be actively involved in the process of realization of nation-wide and regional tasks of developing the country, as well as, demonstrate their leadership qualities.

 

Systemic approach in solving social problems of youth

State youth policy is driven to meet the social needs and demands of youth, to assist and support in solving vital issues of youth. In addition to that, the government needs to build relationship with youth in this way so that youth would be ready to create and work for the interests of competitive and sustainable development of the nation.

Solving social problems of the youth requires the systemic approach. It is relevant on the basis of it:

  • To build new level of communication between youth and institutions of executive power in the area of state youth policy;
  • To develop modern social technologies, which actively support the formation of positive image of the state in youth’s consciousness;
  • To determine an effective system of social partnership between youth, business community and institutes of civil society.

Social aspects of developing Kazakhstan’s youth policy are connected with harmonization of social relationships, which involve two main segments:

1) optimization of measures on prevention of social exclusion of youth from community’s life;

2) formation of socio-cultural values of democracy and humanism, to counteract violence, terrorism and radical extremism  in the youth environment.

In the context of current challenges and risks, it is necessary to build a new model of social protection of youth, which would ensure young generation with social engagement and decent living conditions.

Recommendations on social aspects of developing Kazakhstan’s youth policy on micro- and macrolevels:

  • The analysis of tendencies of youth’s social adaptation;
  • To study the dynamics of youth’s labor and creative resource development;
  • To research parameters of health conditions, intellectual capacity, and professional preparedness as one of the main indicators of strategic planning and forecasting the development of the country;
  • The development of new approaches to the process of controlling social changes in the youth environment by the institutes of social and legal protection.

 

List of references:
  1. Address by the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Leader of the Nation, N.Nazarbayev “Strategy Kazakhstan-2050”: new political course of the established state” //http://www.akorda.kz/…kazakhstan/…/poslanie-prezidenta-respubliki-kaza… /
  2. On the concept of state youth policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan up to 2020 “Kazakhstan 2020: path for the future”—  The Resolution of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan from 27th February 2013 #191 //http://www.adilet.gov.kz/ru/node/38994 /
  3. On the approval of the action plan on realization of the concept of  state youth policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan up to 2020 “Kazakhstan 2020: path for the future”  (first phase  – 2013-2015) — The Resolution of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan  from 17th June 2013, # 603 //https://egov.kz/cms/ru/law/list/P1300000603 /
  4. On the approval of the action plan on realization of the concept of  state youth policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan up to 2020 “Kazakhstan 2020: path for the future” (second phase – 2016-2020 — The Resolution of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan  from 9th December, 2015,  # 983 //https://egov.kz/cms/ru/law/list/P1500000983 /
  5. Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan from 9th February, 2015,  # 285-V «On state youth policy» //http://online.zakon.kz/Document/?doc_id=31661446/
  6. On state program of developing and functioning of the languages in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2011-2020 – Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan from  29th June,  2011,  #110 //http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/U1100000110 /
  7. On the approval of the program on regional development up to 2020  – The Resolution of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan  from 28th June, 2014,  #728 //http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/P1400000728 /
  8. The Resolution of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan  from 31st March, 2015,  # 162 about the approval of Employment Roadmap – 2020 (with changes and additions as of 22.07.2016) //http://online.zakon.kz/Document/?doc_id=34896883/